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Инфекция и иммунитет

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ПОДБОР НОВЫХ МОЛЕКУЛЯРНЫХ МИШЕНЕЙ ДЛЯ ОПТИМИЗАЦИИ ВАКЦИНОПРОФИЛАКТИКИ И ТЕРАПИИ ЧУМЫ

https://doi.org/10.15789/2220-7619-SNM-1254

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Аннотация

Возбудитель чумы, Yersinia pestis, особо опасный бактериальный патоген и потенциальный агент биотерроризма. Преобладающими клиническими формами инфекции являются бубонная и легочная чума, отличающиеся по пути инфицирования. При отсутствии лечения смертность при бубонной форме чумы составляет 40-60 %, в то время как легочная чума без лечения всегда летальна. Развитие инфекционного процесса в организме восприимчивого хозяина обеспечивается наличием у чумного микроба комплекса факторов патогенности различной функциональной направленности, экспрессирующихся в зависимости от стадии инфекционного процесса. Нокаутные мутации генов, кодирующих эти факторы, могут не влиять на вирулентность микроба или приводить к его аттенуации. Поиск новых факторов патогенности Y. pestis и разработка на их основе высокоэффективных субъединичных и живых чумных вакцин, индуцирующих развитие выраженных клеточных и гуморальных иммунных реакций, и/или оценка потенциального использования этих факторов в качестве молекулярных мишеней для химиотерапии чумы остаются по-прежнему актуальными, так как обе лицензированные на настоящий день чумные вакцины не соответствуют требованиям ВОЗ, а на Мадагаскаре выделены штаммы чумного микроба, устойчивые ко всем лекарственным препаратам, рекомендованным для антибактериальной терапии чумы. В настоящей статье обобщены сведения относительно вклада известных и вновь открытых факторов патогенности в вирулентность штаммов Y. pestis и протективную активность в отношении чумы. Описано также влияние утраты генов регуляторных белков и мутаций в генах различных транспортных систем Y. pestis на аттенуацию вирулентных штаммов. Проведена оценка перспективности включения охарактеризованных антигенов в состав прототипов субъединичных вакцин и тех или иных полученных мутантов в состав прототипов живых аттенуированных вакцин. Суммированы предварительные результаты попыток лечения чумы с помощью ингибиторов факторов патогенности. Использование антибиотиков постулируется комитетом экспертов Всемирной организации здравоохранения по чуме как "золотой стандарт" лечения чумы. Однако появление устойчивых к антибиотикам штаммов Y. pestis привело к необходимости поиска альтернативных способов терапии чумы. Несколько исследовательских групп работают над поиском альтернатив, таких как лечение ингибиторами факторов патогенности. В обзоре обобщены предварительные результаты попыток лечения чумы ингибиторами фактора патогенности. Препараты, нацеленные на ключевые факторы патогенности, предоставляют новые перспективные возможности в борьбе с устойчивыми к антибиотикам бактериями.

Об авторах

Е. А. Красильникова
ФБУН «Государственный научный центр прикладной микробиологии и биотехнологии»
Россия
Младший научный сотрудник лаборатории микробиологии чумы отдела особо опасных инфекций


А. С. Трунякова
ФБУН «Государственный научный центр прикладной микробиологии и биотехнологии»
Россия

Стажер-исследователь лаборатории микробиологии чумы отдела опасных инфекций

SPIN-код: 7290-1420



А. С. Вагайская
ФБУН «Государственный научный центр прикладной микробиологии и биотехнологии»
Россия
Младший научный сотрудник лаборатории микробиологии чумы отдела особо опасных инфекций


Т. Э. Светоч
ФБУН «Государственный научный центр прикладной микробиологии и биотехнологии»
Россия
Научный сотрудник лаборатории микробиологии чумы отдела особо опасных инфекций


Р. З. Шайхутдинова
ФБУН «Государственный научный центр прикладной микробиологии и биотехнологии»
Россия
Старший научный сотрудник лаборатории микробиологии чумы отдела особо опасных инфекций


С. В. Дентовская
ФБУН «Государственный научный центр прикладной микробиологии и биотехнологии»
Россия

Главный научный сотрудник лаборатории микробиологии чумы отдела особо опасных инфекций, доктор медицинских наук

SPIN-код: 4861-5248



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Красильникова Е.А., Трунякова А.С., Вагайская А.С., Светоч Т.Э., Шайхутдинова Р.З., Дентовская С.В. ПОДБОР НОВЫХ МОЛЕКУЛЯРНЫХ МИШЕНЕЙ ДЛЯ ОПТИМИЗАЦИИ ВАКЦИНОПРОФИЛАКТИКИ И ТЕРАПИИ ЧУМЫ. Инфекция и иммунитет. 2020;. https://doi.org/10.15789/2220-7619-SNM-1254

For citation:


Krasil'nikova E., Trunyakova A., Vagaiskaya A., Svetoch T., Shaikhutdinova R., Dentovskaya S. A SEARCH FOR NEW MOLECULAR TARGETS FOR OPTIMIZING PLAGUE PREVENTIVE VACCINATION AND THERAPY. Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2020;. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.15789/2220-7619-SNM-1254

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ISSN 2220-7619 (Print)
ISSN 2313-7398 (Online)