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Инфекция и иммунитет

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Иммунный ответ на инфекцию, вызванную респираторно-синцитиальным вирусом (Orthopneumovirus)

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Аннотация

     

Респираторно-синцитиальный вирус (РСВ) инфицирует детей, пожилых людей и больных с иммунодефицитами. В 2016 году РСВ был переименован в Orthopneumovirus в связи с латинизацией таксономии вирусов, а также был включен в семейство Pneumoviridae. Однако в данном обзоре мы будем применять старое, более известное название вируса - РСВ. РСВ-инфекция не индуцирует развитие пожизненного стерилизующего иммунитета. Разные типы клеток иммунной системы, такие как дендритные клетки, макрофаги, Т-клетки, B-клетки и эозинофилы принимают участие в противовирусном ответе при РСВ-инфекции. Некоторые из них играют важную роль в элиминации вируса, тогда как другие могут провоцировать повреждение тканей. Взаимодействие между этими клетками происходит посредством индукции различных цитокинов и хемокинов часть из которых индуцируются на ранних стадиях заболевания, тогда как другие на более поздних. Кроме того, они могут оказывать влияние на течение как первичной, так и повторной РСВ-инфекции. Пролонгированная или персистирующая РСВ-инфекция наблюдается у детей с Т-клеточными иммунодефицитами, что свидетельствует от том, что Т-клетки являются необходимым компонентом для разрешения острой фазы инфекции и для формирования вирус-специфической иммунологической памяти.  РСВ-специфичные антитела присутствуют практически у всех взрослых и детей, однако их наличие не защищает от повторного заражения вирусом.  Некоторые исследования указывают на то, что именно уровень РСВ-специфичных мукозальных, а не сывороточных антител коррелирует с более эффективной защитой от РСВ-инфекции. В отношении РСВ разрабатываются следующие виды вакцин: живые аттенуированные, субъединичные, вакцины на основе инактивированного вируса, вакцины на основе вирусных частиц, вакцины на основе нуклеиновых кислот, а также моноклональные антитела. При разработке вакцин следует принимать во внимание особенности иммунного ответа при РСВ-инфекции, а также учитывать возраст вакцинируемых. Так, для детей, во избежание вакцин-ассоциированного усиления инфекции, оправдано применение живых аттенуированных вакцин, тогда как для лиц среднего возраста и пожилых людей возможно применение субъединичных вакцин. Однако в настоящее время все еще нет лицензированных вакцин в отношении РСВ-инфекции.

В рамках данного обзора мы подробно рассмотрим особенности взаимодействия вируса с разными звеньями иммунной системы, современное представление о вакцинопрофилактике РСВ-инфекции.

                                                                                                                                                         

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Об авторах

Александра Александровна Никонова
ФГБНУ НИИВС им. И.И. Мечникова
Россия

к.б.н., зав. лабораторией молекулярной биотехнологии



Игорь Юрьевич Исаков
ФГБНУ НИИВС им. И.И. Мечникова
Россия
младший научный сотрудник лаборатории молекулярной биотехнологии


Виталий Васильевич Зверев
ФГБНУ НИИВС им. И.И. Мечникова
Россия

д.б.н., профессор, академик РАН, научный руководитель ФГБНУ НИИВС им. И.И. Мечникова



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Никонова А.А., Исаков И.Ю., Зверев В.В. Иммунный ответ на инфекцию, вызванную респираторно-синцитиальным вирусом (Orthopneumovirus). Инфекция и иммунитет. 2019;.

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Nikonova A.A., Isakov I.Y., Zverev V.V. Immune response to respiratory syncytial virus infection (Orthopneumovirus). Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2019;. (In Russ.)

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