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МОЛЕКУЛЯРНЫЕ ОСНОВЫ ПАТОГЕННОСТИ COXIELLA BURNETII

https://doi.org/10.15789/2220-7619-2016-1-7-24

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Аннотация

Coxiella burnetii — облигатный внутриклеточный грамотрицательный бактериальный патоген, возбудитель Ку-лихорадки — природно-очагового заболевания, протекающего в острой (преимущественно в виде атипичной пневмонии) или хронической (чаще всего в виде эндокардита) форме. Хозяевами коксиелл в природе являются многие виды млекопитающих, птиц и членистоногих, основной источник инфекции для человека — сельскохозяйственные животные. Основной путь передачи инфекции — аэрозольный. При попадании в организм человека патоген связывается с фагоцитирующими клетками моноцитарно-макрофагального ряда. Внутри клетки хозяина C. burnetii способствует созреванию специфического, подобного фаголизосоме, компартмента, известного как коксиелла-содержащая вакуоль, внутри которого происходит метаболическая активация и репликация бактерий. Во внешней среде коксиелла существует в виде метаболически неактивной спороподобной формы. В процессе внедрения в клетку хозяина C. burnetii использует актинзависимый фагоцитоз и механизм «застежки-молнии». После интернализации бактерии происходит созревание фаголизосомоподобного компартмента и формирование крупной коксиелла-содержащей вакуоли, занимающей почти всю цитоплазму клетки хозяина. Выживание инфицированных клеток является важным для поддержания хронической коксиеллезной инфекции. Коксиелла продлевает жизнеспособность хозяйской клетки двумя способами: она активно ингибирует апоптотический сигнальный каскад и индуцирует способствующие выживанию факторы. Помимо этого, коксиелла активно задействует компоненты аутофагии в формировании коксиелла-содержащей вакуоли, и индукция аутофагии способствует внутриклеточной репликации патогена. В процессе инфекции коксиелла с помощью секреторной системы IV типа транслоцирует эффекторные субстраты из бактериального цитозоля напрямую в цитозоль эукариотной клетки, где они взаимодействуют с белками хозяина. Всего идентифицировано около 130 секретируемых эффекторов транспортной системы IV типа, функция большинства из них на данный момент неизвестна. Обнаружены специфические для ряда штаммов и изолятов секретируемые белки, что подтверждает существующую гипотезу о наличии отдельных патотипов C. burnetii. Идентификация и характеристика новых факторов вирулентности стала возможной пос ле появления бесклеточной среды для культивирования и развития методов сайт-специфического мутагенеза и других генетических манипуляций, что является важной вехой в исследовании молекулярного патогенеза C. burnetii.

Об авторе

Ю. А. Панферова
ФБУН НИИ эпидемиологии и микробиологии имени Пастера, Санкт-Петербург, Россия
Россия

младший научный сотрудник лаборатории зооантропонозных инфекций ФБУН НИИ эпидемиологии и микробиологии имени Пастера, Санкт-Петербург, Россия 197101, Россия, Санкт-Петербург, ул. Мира, 14, Тел.: (812) 232-21-36 (служебн.). Факс: (812) 232-92-17.



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Панферова Ю.А. МОЛЕКУЛЯРНЫЕ ОСНОВЫ ПАТОГЕННОСТИ COXIELLA BURNETII. Инфекция и иммунитет. 2016;6(1):7-24. https://doi.org/10.15789/2220-7619-2016-1-7-24

For citation:


Panferova Y.A. COXIELLA BURNETII PATHOGENICITY MOLECULAR BASIS. Russian Journal of Infection and Immunity. 2016;6(1):7-24. (In Russ.) https://doi.org/10.15789/2220-7619-2016-1-7-24

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